What are the Normal Lab Values

Blood tests are important to check a person’s health. Different types of laboratory tests are conducted to check the overall health status.

Lab assistants would test a person’s blood, urine, or body fluids such as gastric acid, other body tissues, stool, etc.

The final lab test report will indicate whether a person’s lab values are within the average range. This article provides everything you need to know about Normal Lab Values.

What Do You Mean by Normal Lab Values

Clinical guidelines determine normal lab values, which may vary between laboratories and countries based on standardized ranges and units. Since the normal lab values may vary, the normal lab values in lab reports come between upper and lower limits. Lab Values depend upon the tests prescribed by the physician.

How Do Lab Tests Prescribe?

Physicians prescribe lab tests to patients based on their recently developed symptoms.

Physicians may order multiple lab tests based on clinical assessment to diagnose or monitor conditions, not solely to confirm diseases. The lab tests may be taken periodically to check the progress of the disease as per the physician’s guidance.

Physicians assess patients and may order lab tests, typically collected by healthcare professionals specialized in sample collection, not necessarily the physicians themselves.

Lab assistants would also come to collect the blood sample right in the clinic, so you would not need to go anywhere. You may be asked to visit the lab and get tested personally.

The lab assistant only tests your blood samples upon receiving the doctor’s prescription. Every lab assistant must follow certain rules and regulations to comply with the laws.

Each lab collects information about the patients and saves their previous and current sample reports in its database. If needed, the labs can compare the previous and current lab reports to see changes and progress.

What Factors Affect the Normal Lab Values

The lab results may vary from person to person; however, the Normal Lab Values are the same. A person’s sex, age, general health, medical history, and current diseases are the factors that can affect the normal lab values of the patient.

Besides this, what you eat, how your body reacts, and what laboratory you choose may also affect the final lab reports.

Always choose the trusted laboratory for blood or other lab tests. Trusted laboratories will give you accurate results that can help doctors diagnose diseases.

The FDA regulates laboratory tests and equipment but does not set normal lab values established through clinical research and laboratory standards. The agency provides test kits and other equipment manufactured commercially in the country.

They also check the standards and other regulations before they approve the manufacturers of particular equipment or test kits.

Hematology – Red Blood Cells

Red Blood Cells- The normal range of a person’s red blood cell count is listed in the table below.

Laboratory TestSexNormal Lab Values
RBCMale4.2 – 5.6 10^6 / µL
RBCFemale3.8 – 5.1 10^6 / µL
RBCChild3.5 – 5.0 10^6 / µL

Hematology – White Blood Cells

White Blood Cells- The normal range of a person’s White Blood Cell count are listed below in the table.

Laboratory TestSexNormal Lab Values
WBCMale3.8 – 11.0 10^3 / mm3
WBCFemale3.8 – 11.0 10^3 / mm3
WBCChildNormal WBC range for children varies with age, typically between 5.0 and 10.0 x 10^3/mm^3.


Hemoglobin reports are prescribed to confirm the effects of diseases on a person’s red blood cells or hemoglobin counts.

Laboratory TestSexNormal Lab Values
HgbMale13.8 – 17.2 g/dL
HgbFemale12.1 – 15.1 g/dL
HgbChild11 – 13 g/dL (for ages 0.5-5 years)
HgbNewborn15 – 25 g/dL

General Chemistry

General Chemistry lab reports are prescribed to check the overall functionality of the body’s components.

Laboratory TestNormal Lab Values
acetone0.3 – 2.0 mg%
albumin3.5 – 5.0 gm/dL
alkaline phosphatase32 – 110 U/L
anion gap5 – 16 mEq/L
ammonia11 – 35 µmol/L
amylase50 – 150 U/dL
AST,SGOT- Male7 – 21 U/L
AST,SGOT- Female6 – 18 U/L
bilirubin0.0 – 0.4 mg/dL
bilirubin - total0.2 – 1.4 mg/dL
BUN6 – 23 mg/dL
calcium8 – 11 mg/dL
carbon dioxide21 – 34 mEq/L
chloride96 – 112 mEq/L
Creatinine - Male0.6 – 1.2 mg/dL
Creatinine - Female0.5 – 1.1 mg/dL
Creatinine0.6 – 1.5 mg/dL
folic acid2.0 – 21 ng/mL
glucose65 – 99 mg/dL
HDL- Male25 – 65 mg/dL
HDL- Female38 – 94 mg/dL
iron52 – 169 µg/dL
lactic acid0.4 – 2.3 mEq/L
lactate0.3 – 2.3 mEq/L
lipase10 – 140 U/L
magnesium1.5 – 2.5 mg/dL
osmolarity276 – 295 mOsm/kg
potassium3.5 – 5.5 mEq/L
phosphorus2.2 – 4.8 mg/dL
parathyroid hormone12 – 68 pg/mL
sodium135 – 148 mEq/L
SGPT8 – 32 U/L
TSH0.5 – 4.5 µIU/mL
total protein5 – 9 gm/dL
thyroxine5 – 13 µg/dL
thyroglobulin< 55 ng/mL
uric acid- Female2.5 – 6.6 mg/dL
uric acid- Male3.5 – 7.7 mg/dL
Cholesterol - LDL< 130 mg/dL desirable
Cholesterol- HDL30 – 75 mg/dL
Cholesterol- Total< 200 mg/dL desirable
Triglycerides- Female35 – 135 mg/dL
Triglycerides- Male40 – 170 mg/dL

Coagulation Tests

Coagulation tests are prescribed to check the role of proteins in forming blood clots. The table below lists different types of coagulation tests.

Laboratory TestsNormal Lab Values
APTT21 – 35 seconds
ACT90 – 130 seconds
PT10 - 14 seconds
PTT32 - 45 seconds
platelets140,000 – 450,000 /ml
plasminogen62 – 130%
fibrinogen160 – 450 mg/dL
FSP< 10 µg/dL
thrombin14 - 19 seconds
bleeding time3-7 minutes

Neurological Values

Neurological Tests are prescribed to confirm any neurological disorder. The types of tests to check neurological disorders are listed below.

Laboratory TestsNormal Lab Values
cerebral perfusion pressure70 – 90 mm Hg
intracranial pressure5 – 15 mm Hg or 7 – 15 cm H2O

Neurological values and tests require venous or arterial values. The different types of venous and arterial test values are listed below.

Venous Values

Laboratory TestsNormal Lab Values
pH7.31 – 7.41
PaCO241 – 51 mm Hg
PaO245 mm Hg
BE0 to +4 mmol/L
O2 Saturation60 – 85%
HCO322 – 29 mEq/L

Arterial Values

Laboratory TestsNormal Lab Values
pH7.35 – 7.45
O2 Saturation96 – 100%
PaO285 – 100 mm Hg
BE-2 to +2 mmol/L
HCO322 – 26 mEq/L
PaCO235 – 45 mm Hg

Hemodynamic Parameters

Physicians measure hemodynamic parameters frequently to check blood flow and circulation in humans. The types of hemodynamic parameters and tests are listed in the table below.

Laboratory TestsNormal Lab Values
cardiac output4 – 8 LPM
cardiac index2.5 – 4.2 L / min / m2
right ventricular stroke work index7 – 12 g / m2 / beat
left ventricular stroke work index40 – 70 g / m2 / beat
mean arterial pressure70 – 105 mm Hg
pulmonary vascular resistance index1970 – 2390 dynes / sec / cm^-5
pulmonary vascular resistance155 – 255 dynes / sec / cm^-5
systolic arterial pressure90 – 140 mm Hg
systemic vascular resistance index1970 – 2390 dynes/sec / cm^-5
systemic vascular resistance900 – 1600 dynes/sec / cm^-5
stroke volume index40 – 85 mL / m2 / beat
stroke volume60 – 100 mL/beat
ejection fraction60 – 75%
central venous pressure2 – 6 mm Hg; 2.6 – 9.4 cm H2O
diastolic arterial pressure60 – 90 mm Hg
right atrial pressure4 – 6 mm Hg
left arterial pressure4 – 12 mm Hg
pulmonary artery end-diastolic pressure8 – 10 mm Hg
pulmonary artery wedge pressure4 – 12 mm Hg
pulmonary artery pressure10 – 20 mm Hg
pulmonary artery diastolic5 – 15 mm Hg
pulmonary artery systolic15 – 30 mm Hg
right ventricular end-diastolic pressure0 – 8 mm Hg

Blood Sugar Tests

Blood Sugar Tests are prescribed to check blood sugar values. The types of blood sugar tests and their values are listed below.

Laboratory TestsNormal Lab Values
Fasting Blood Sugar< 100 mg/dL
Post-prandial Blood Sugar< 180 mg/dL
Random Blood Sugar< 140 mg/dL

Thyroid Function Tests

Laboratory TestsNormal Lab Values
T380 - 180 ng/dL
T44.6 - 12 ng/dL
TSH0.4 - 4.0 mIU/L
T3RU23% - 37%

The thyroid is a gland in the neck area responsible for several functions in the human body. Different types of Thyroid Function Tests are prescribed to confirm the type of thyroid disorder that causes different types of problems.

See Also

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