Self Prescribing Laws by State | All 51 States

Self Prescribing Laws by State Self Prescribing Laws by State

Self Prescribing Laws by State – Overview

Under federal law, physicians practicing in the United States are not prohibited from self-prescribing medications.

However, the state laws governing self-prescription vary greatly. Some may prohibit physicians completely from self-prescribing, dispensing or administering certain medications to themselves or close family members.

Depending on the state, physicians may face disciplinary action in case they write prescriptions outside their medical practice, which could also include self-prescription.

Let’s check out the major points of laws that govern and regular self-prescribing in different states of the US.

Self Prescribing Laws by State | 51 States

Self Prescribing Laws by State | 51 States

Self Prescribing Laws by State | 51 States

Here is a breakdown of the major points related to regulating self prescribing laws by state:

1. Alabama

#1. Physicians should record complete medical history and recommend a physical examination, apart from documenting the nature and intensity of the pain, the current and past medical treatments received history of substance abuse, etc. before prescribing a controlled substance.

#2. Dispensing or prescribing controlled substances for oneself or close family members, except in emergencies, is considered unprofessional conduct.

#3. Physicians who prescribe Schedule II amphetamines should maintain a separate dispensing record and prescription record for at least the past 5 years.

2. Alaska

#1. Prescription Monitoring Program is in place to monitor prescription medications authorized but has not been implemented yet.

#2. Before prescribing controlled substances, physicians should create and maintain a clear, concise, and legibly written record of the care, including patient history, evaluation, diagnosis, treatment plan, condition monitoring, potential side effects of prescribed drug, type of drug, the quantity of dose, and any authorized refills.

3. Arizona

#1. Physicians should maintain sufficient, accurate, and timely records relating to pain assessment, treatment plan, informed consent, ongoing consultation, and assessment of the patient.

These mean legible records including sufficient information to identify the patient, support the diagnosis, justify the treatment, documented proof of results, cautionary warnings, and advice given to the patient so that another practitioner can continue the patient’s care at any point in the treatment process.

#2. Physicians should secure all controlled substances in a locked room or cabinet and control access through written authorization.

#3. Prescribing or dispensing controlled substances to oneself or family members by physicians is considered unprofessional conduct.

#4. Follow the Prescription Monitoring Program completely at all times.

4. Arkansas

#1. Prescribing Schedule II controlled substances for oneself or immediate family members may result in the physician’s license being revoked or suspended.

#2. Maintain the Intractable Pain Treatment Act (IPTA) which prohibits physicians from prescribing or administering controlled and dangerous drugs intended to manage chronic intractable pain, especially for treating patients for chemical dependency or drug abuse.

#3. Physicians are prohibited from prescribing or administering controlled or dangerous drugs to any person other than for legitimate medical purposes.

#4. Physicians found prescribing Schedule II, III, IV and V narcotic agents for more than 6 months to patients with pain not resulting from terminal or malignant illness will be considered as exhibiting ignorant malpractice or gross negligence.



5. California

#1. Physicians must prescribe all Schedule II – V controlled substances in tamper-proof security prescription forms with a minimum of 10 security features.

#2. Prescription drug dispensing is with the Prescription Monitoring Program.

#3. Physicians cannot self-prescribe controlled substances.

#4. Medical marijuana is permitted under state law.

6. Colorado

#1. Physicians are forbidden from prescribing medications based on internet-based consultation, questionnaires or a telephonic consultation, without a pre-existing patient-physician relationship.

#2. Physicians should not be subject to disciplinary action by the Board for prescribing controlled substances for relieving intractable pain.

#3. Prescribing, distributing or dispensing any controlled substance to oneself or a close family member, except in a medical emergency, is considered to be unprofessional conduct and can result in disciplinary action against the physician.

#4. Physicians are prohibited from prescribing stimulants classified under Schedule II controlled substances for increasing work capacity, diet control or for normal fatigue, etc.

#5. All controlled substance prescription and dispensing in the state is monitored by the Prescription Monitoring Program.

7. Connecticut

#1. Physicians should perform physical examinations and record a patient’s medical history before prescribing any controlled substance as medication.

#2. The written prescription should include relevant information, such as the patient’s name and complete residential address, adult or child, compound or preparation prescribed along with the amount, the directions for using the medication, the date of issuing a prescription, and the name and address of the physician.

#3. Physicians can only prescribe one drug under the Schedule II classified controlled substances.

#4. All controlled substance prescriptions and administration are monitored by the Prescription Monitoring Program within the state.

8. Delaware

#1. Every written prescription should have the physician’s name stamped, typed or hand-printed on it, along with their signature.

#2. Prescriptions for Schedule II and III controlled substances automatically become void unless dispensed within 7 days of the original issuance date on the prescription.

#3. Physicians cannot prescribe controlled substances or dispense more than 100 dosage units per day or a 31-day supply.

#4. Prescription of Schedule II controlled substances to terminally ill patients, or long-term care facility patients, is valid only up to 60 days from the date of issue of the prescription unless sooner terminated by discontinuing the medication on the physician’s advice.

#5. Physicians cannot prescribe or dispense Schedule II to IV controlled substances for weight loss unless the drug has FDA approval, specifically for this purpose.

9. District of Columbia

#1. Adopted Model Policy for Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

#2. Physicians should evaluate patients, develop a feasible treatment plan, obtain informed consent from patients, and agree to the treatment, with regular review of the treatment plan, consulting with patients, maintaining sufficient medical records, and complying with controlled substances regulations and laws to prescribe controlled substances.

10. Florida

#1. Physicians cannot prescribe medications from different classed controlled substances on the same prescription.

#2. Physicians can prescribe a maximum 30-day supply of a controlled substance listed under Schedule III through prescription.

#3. Every written prescription from physicians for Schedule II, III and IV controlled substances should include a written and numerical notation of the quantity of the prescribed controlled substances, along with the date of issuance on the face of the prescription.

#4. Physicians are forbidden from prescribing controlled substances in the state.

11. Georgia

#1. Physicians who self-prescribe medication can face action as it is considered to be unprofessional conduct.

#2. To prescribe controlled substances, physicians in the state should perform a physical examination and record the medical history of the patient, determine the effectiveness of controlled substances in treatment, and review the patient record to discuss chemical history, discuss risks and benefits of controlled substances and keep a clear record of the type of medication, exact dosage and amount of medication prescribed.

12. Hawaii

#1. Physicians can only prescribe controlled substances to patients in a medical emergency situation.

#2. All prescription and dispensing of controlled substances are monitored by the state’s Prescription Monitoring Program.

#3. Physicians should use both, words and figures to indicate the quantity of the prescribed controlled substance.

13. Idaho

#1. Physicians who need to prescribe Schedule II controlled substances to patients should write the exact quantity by writing the quantity in words and numerical form.

#2. All prescription and dispensing of controlled substances in the state are monitored by the Prescription Monitoring Program.

#3. Physicians who prescribe Schedule II controlled substances to patients in licensed hospitals, nursing homes and extended care facilities using a unit dose distribution system should maintain a patient’s written record and sign it, with the proper date and drug information. A copy of this record should be given to the pharmacist within 72 hours and these records should be maintained for at least 3 years for inspection.

#4. Physicians who self-prescribe and provide controlled substances to themselves, their spouse, children or step-child may face disciplinary action from the state’s medical board.

14. Illinois

#1. Physicians need a state license to prescribe controlled substances within the state.

#2. All controlled substances are monitored by the state’s Prescription Monitoring Program.

15. Indiana

#1. Physicians cannot use, prescribe, order, dispense, administer, supply, sell or give controlled substances for weight loss until and unless the physician conducts a complete review and records that the previous treatment method was ineffective.

#2. Physicians cannot prescribe, dispense or provide any controlled substance to an individual who the physician has never personally examined physically and diagnosed.

#3. All controlled substances in the state are monitored by the Prescription Monitoring Program.

16. Iowa

#1. Physicians are prohibited from self-prescribing or self-dispensing controlled substances through prescriptions.

#2. All controlled substances dispending is monitored by the state’s Prescription Monitoring Program.

#3. Physicians should ensure that the pain is accurately assessed and treated by using sound clinical judgment through an effective pain management plan as per patient evaluation, treatment plan, periodic review, informed consent, documentation, termination of care and physician-patient agreement.

17. Kansas

#1. Follow Adopted Model Policy for Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

#2. Physicians cannot prescribe Schedule II, III, IV and V controlled substances on a prescription blank, which is pre-printed with the name of the controlled substance or its quantity, strength or directions of use.

#3. All controlled substances are monitored under the Prescription Monitoring Program.

18. Kentucky

#1. Physicians are prohibited from prescribing controlled substances to themselves, family members, staff or individuals who knowingly abuse the substances.

#2. Prescriptions for Schedule II controlled substances are valid only for 60 days from the date of issuing the prescription.

#3. Physicians cannot prescribe Schedule II amphetamine and amphetamine-like substances to treat obesity.

19. Louisiana

#1. Physicians should oversee every patient’s treatment, within 12 weeks during which the physician needs to assess the effectiveness of the treatment, assure that controlled substances therapy remains active and evaluate the patient’s progress through treatment objectives and side effects from the prescribed medication.

20. Maine

#1. The state follows the Adopted Model Policy for the Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

#2. Physicians should follow all guidelines about evaluating patients, developing a treatment plan, getting the patient’s informed consent and agreement for treatment, regularly reviewing the treatment plan’s progress, consulting with patients, maintaining accurate patient records and complying with the state law and regulations regarding self-prescribing and prescription of controlled substances.

#3. The state law allows physicians to prescribe medical marijuana for treatment purposes.

21. Maryland

#1. Physicians should issue prescriptions for Schedule II, III, IV and V controlled substances with a 120-days validation period from the date of issuing the prescription.

#2. Physicians are strongly prohibited from prescribing controlled substances to family members or staff.

22. Massachusetts

#1. Physicians should manually sign prescriptions after writing.

#2. Physicians should use different prescription blanks to prescribe each controlled substance.

#3. All prescriptions involving Schedule II medications are valid only for 30 days from the date of prescription issuance.

#4. Physicians cannot full prescriptions for Schedule II or III controlled substances for more than 30 days.

#5. Physicians should maintain regular contact with patients while prescribing controlled substances.

23. Michigan

#1. The state follows the Adopted Model Policy for the Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

#2. Physicians need to evaluate patients, develop a treatment plan, obtain informed consent and agreement for treatment, regularly review treatment plans, consult with patients, maintain accurate health records, and comply with the state’s controlled substance laws and regulations.

#3. Physicians should ensure that prescriptions for Schedule II controlled substances should only be valid for 90 days from the date of issuance.

#4. Physicians should write the number of controlled substances in written and numerical form.

#5. Physicians in the state can prescribe medical marijuana for medical treatment under state laws.

24. Minnesota

#1. The state follows the Adopted Model Policy for Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

#2. Physicians should evaluate patients, develop a treatment plan, get the patient’s informed consent and agreement for treatment, regularly review the progress and efficacy of the treatment plan, maintain accurate medical records and comply with the state’s controlled substance laws and regulations.

25. Mississippi

#1. Physicians in the state cannot prescribe, administer or dispense any controlled substance or drugs having addiction-sustaining or addiction-forming liability without proper examination and medical indication.

#2. Physicians should prescribe Schedule II prescription drugs for less than 6 months from the date of issuance.

#3. Physicians cannot prescribe for brand name or generic equivalents for specific substances or fax the prescription.

26. Missouri

#1. The physician should ensure that all prescriptions for controlled substances for longer than 30 days should write the medical reasons for the prescription, as only a diagnostic number is not sufficient.

#2. All Schedule II controlled substance prescriptions should have their validity expiring after 6 months from the date of issuance.

#3. Physicians cannot self-prescribe controlled substances except in true medical emergencies.

#4. Physicians cannot prescribe any controlled substance as medication for more than 30 days straight and would require medical reasons for a 90-day supply.

27. Montana

#1. Physicians are restricted from prescribing Schedule II controlled substances for more than 30-days at a time.

#2. Physicians are expressly forbidden from self-prescribing or prescribing controlled substances to family members as this may result in disciplinary action against the said physician.

#3. Physicians should restrict the prescription quantity of Schedule III, IV and V substances to a maximum 3-month supply.

#4. Physicians can prescribe medical marijuana for treatment under state laws.

28. Nebraska

#1. Physicians who self—prescribe controlled substances to themselves or family members can face disciplinary action.

#2. Physicians should ensure that prescriptions for Schedule II controlled substances should expire within 6 months of issuance.

#3. The state follows the Adopted Model Policy for Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

#4. Physicians should follow prescription guidelines, like evaluating patients, developing a treatment plan, getting patients’ assent and agreement for treatment, regularly reviewing the progress of the treatment plan, consulting with patients, maintaining accurate patient medical records and ensuring compliance with the state’s controlled substances laws.

29. Nevada

#1. Physicians cannot self-prescribe controlled substances to themselves or immediate family members.

#2. The state controls the prescription and dispensing of controlled substances through its Prescription Monitoring Program.

#3. Physicians should ensure that all Schedule II controlled substance prescriptions must expire 6 months from the date of issuance.

#4. Physicians can prescribe medical marijuana for treatment under state laws.

30. New Hampshire

#1. Physicians cannot prescribe Schedule II and III controlled substances for more than a 34-day supply, or 100 dosage units, whichever is less.

#2. Physicians should ensure that their Schedule II controlled substance prescription should expire within 6 months from the date of issuance.

#3. The state follows the Adopted Model Policy for the Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

#4. Physicians can administer higher controlled substance doses if they deem it necessary for appropriate pain management.

31. New Jersey

#1. Physicians must write all state-authorized prescription blanks printed with the physician’s prescriber NPI serialized by the vendor, including the physician’s name, license number, address and phone number.

#2. Physicians should write prescriptions for controlled substances on a separate Uniform Prescription Blank (NJPB)

#3. In case the physician notices a stolen, forged or lost NJPB, it should be reported within 72 hours.

#4. Physicians can only prescribe Schedule II controlled substances for a 30-day supply.

#5. Physicians cannot prescribe Schedule III or IV controlled substances for more than a 34-day supply, or 100 dosage units, whichever is less.

#6. Physicians who prescribe controlled substances to patients for more than 3 months should ensure that the patient’s progress is reviewed, along with the course of treatment, and new information about the root cause of pain after at least 3 months.

#7. Physicians should ensure that prescriptions for all controlled substances must expire after 30 days from the date of issuance.

#8. Physicians can prescribe medical marijuana under state laws.

32. New Mexico

#1. Physicians can prescribe medical marijuana under state laws.

#2. Physicians who are being treated with opiates should have a medical clearance to prescribe and be under medical care.

33. New York

#1. Physicians should ensure that Schedule II controlled substance prescription is limited to a 30-day supply.

#2. Physicians should ensure that prescription for oral Schedule IV medications is limited to a 30-day supply, or 100 dosage units, whichever is less.

#3. Physicians should submit all information for controlled substances, including anabolic steroids on official prescription forms with no refills.

#4. Physicians are discouraged by the state’s medical board against self-prescription and prescription for close family members.

#5. Physicians who prescribe Schedule II controlled substances to patients should make sure to not down the age and sex of the patient, the telephone number of the physician and the maximum daily dosage clearly on the prescription blank.

34. North Carolina

#1. Physicians should note down the patient’s name and current street address before prescribing controlled substances.

#2. Physicians are prohibited from using pre-printed prescription blanks with the name of a Scheduled substance.

#3. Physicians should prescribe separate controlled substances on separate prescription blanks.

35. North Dakota

#1. Physicians cannot prescribe refills for Schedule II controlled substances for more than 6 months from the date of issuance.

#2. Physicians who prescribe controlled substances or addictive or dangerous drugs for themselves, their spouses or child may face disciplinary action.

36. Ohio

#1. Physicians cannot prescribe controlled substances to treat obesity or weight loss.

#2. Physicians should use a Schedule III or IV controlled substance with FDA approval for weight loss or maintaining weight loss, only and only if the scheduled drug is considered to be an adjunct to diet and lifestyle changes.

#3. Physicians must personally meet the patients, minimum within 30 days when prescribing a controlled substance for weight loss.

#4. Physicians cannot develop and prescribe a treatment plan containing controlled substances for more than 12 weeks.

#5. Physicians are strictly prohibited from self-prescribing, or prescribing controlled substances to themselves or close family members instead of disciplinary action.

#6. Physicians can only prescribe controlled substances to a family member for treatment during medical emergencies.

37. Oklahoma

#1. Physicians should ensure that prescriptions for all Schedule II controlled substances should expire after 30 days from the date of issuance.

#2. Every Scheduled Drug prescription should be written on a single prescription form.

#3. Physicians should ensure that refills are not granted at the same time as the initial filling of the prescription for all Schedule III and IV controlled substances.

#4. Physicians issuing a new prescription for controlled substances need to ensure that they make the previous prescription void.

#5. Physicians can only prescribe controlled substances for themselves or family members in case of a medical emergency where no other doctor/physician is available.

38. Oregon

#1. Physicians should discuss the potential risks in written format with the patient before prescribing controlled substances for the treatment of intractable pain.

#2. Physicians can prescribe medical marijuana under state laws.

39. Pennsylvania

#1. Physicians should ensure that all Schedule II controlled substance prescriptions should expire within 6 months from the date of issuance.

#2. Physicians should maintain patient records for a minimum of 7 years from the date of last medical service.

#3. The prescription and dispensing of controlled substances within the state are monitored by the Prescription Monitoring Program.

40. Rhode Island

#1. Physicians should personally perform a physical examination of the patient before prescribing any Schedule II, III or IV controlled substance.

#2. Physicians should ensure that prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances should expire within 30 days if the patient fails to get the prescription filled within this time period.

#3. Physicians can only prescribe Schedule II controlled substances for a 30-day supply, or a maximum of 250 dosage units.

#4. Physicians cannot prescribe Schedule III, IV and V controlled substances for more than 100 dosage units and not more than 100 dosage units should be dispensed at a time.

#5. Physicians can prescribe medical marijuana under state laws.

41. South Carolina

#1. Physicians should ensure that the prescription of controlled substances is limited to 31 days and the prescription needs to be filled within 90 days from the date of issuance.

#2. Physicians cannot self-prescribe or prescribe controlled substances for treating themselves or their family members unless it is a medical emergency with no other doctor/physician present.

#3. Physicians are prohibited from using pre-printed prescriptions for controlled substances under any Schedule.

#4. The state follows the Adopted Model Policy for Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

42. South Dakota

#1. Physicians should obtain a South Dakota Controlled Substance Registration number to be able to prescribe a controlled substance for treatment.

#2. Physicians are strictly prohibited from self-prescribing or prescribing controlled substances for themselves, their spouses or children.

#3. The state follows the Adopted Model Policy for Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

43. Tennessee

#1. Physicians can transmit medical and prescription orders to a pharmacy by fax.

#2. Prescriptions and medical orders through electronic means can only be filled if they fulfill specific requirements.

#3. Physicians can self-prescribe Schedule IV controlled substances only during a medical emergency.

#4. Physicians are strictly prohibited from administering Schedule II controlled substances to one-self.

44. Texas

#1. The state follows the Adopted Model Policy for Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

#2. Physicians are allowed to prescribe Schedule II controlled substances to patients only on an official Texas prescription form, including single or multiple copies.

45. Utah

#1. The state follows the Adopted Model Policy for Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

#2. Physicians self-prescribing controlled substances to themselves are deemed as having unprofessional conduct.

#3. Physicians need to mention the date of the patient when prescribing controlled substances.

#4. Physicians need to ensure that when they write prescriptions for controlled substances, each prescription should contain only one controlled substance per prescription form, with no other drug listed along with it.

46. Vermont

#1. The state follows the Adopted Model Policy for Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

#2. Physicians must ensure that they use a hand-written signature on prescription drug orders as stamped signatures are not considered to be valid in such cases.

#3. Physicians are prohibited from prescribing Schedule II to IV controlled substances to themselves, or family members, except in a medical emergency.

#4. Physicians need to use Tamper Resistant Prescription Forms for all types of prescriptions.

#5. Physicians can prescribe medical marijuana under state laws.

47. Virginia

#1. The state follows the Adopted Model Policy for Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

#2. Physicians are allowed to prescribe only 1 controlled substance per the prescription order form.

#3. Physicians are only allowed to self-prescribe themselves or prescribe for family members in case of a medical emergency.

48. Washington

#1. Physicians need to fill prescriptions in triplicate.

#2. The state follows the Adopted Model Policy for Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

#3. Physicians can prescribe medical marijuana under state law.

#4. Physicians are strictly prohibited from self-prescribing controlled substances to themselves or close family members.

49. West Virginia

#1. The state of West Virginia follows the Adopted Model Policy for the Use of Controlled Substances for the Treatment of Pain.

#2. Physicians should ensure that prescriptions for controlled substances must be written on a separate prescription blank.

#3. Physicians should ensure that any prescription for Schedule II controlled substances is filled within 90 dates from issuance.

#4. Physicians who self-prescribe or prescribe controlled substances for themselves or family members can face disciplinary action.

50. Wisconsin

#1. Physicians in the state are strictly prohibited from self-prescribing controlled substances for themselves or family members.

#2. Except for specified conditions, the prescription, order, administering, supplying and giving of any Schedule II amphetamine is considered to be unprofessional conduct and strictly prohibited for physicians.

#3. Physicians should ensure that any prescription involving Schedule III, IV or V controlled substances should provide only a maximum 30-day supply at one time.

#4. Physicians can prescribe medical marijuana under state laws.

51. Wyoming

#1. Physicians who repeatedly prescribe or provide a controlled substance to one-self, parent, spouse, or children violate the Wyoming Medical Practice Act.

#2. Physicians should ensure that prescriptions for any form of a controlled substance should be issued on an appropriate and approved security paper.

Conclusion

These are the specific laws and regulations governing self-prescription, especially for controlled substances, for physicians practicing in each state of the US.

To learn further details and specifics of controlled substance prescription laws and self-prescription laws, you should visit the advisory or supervising authority concerned with the subject.

See Also

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Reference links

https://www.ecri.org/components/

https://mederxonline.com/

https://professionals.ufhealth.org/

https://www.ncmedboard.org/

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